Home | Articles | About | Contact | Forum |
Monday, October 20, 2014



Lunarpages.com Web Hosting

Mailing List

E-mail:
By Joining the mailing list you will be notified of site updates.


Show Your Support For
This Site By Donating:











Audience: System Administrators
Last Updated: 3/21/2011 8:23:12 PM
Original Creation Date: 11/25/2006 12:57:42 PM
**All times are EST**




HOWTO - Finding Rootkits with rkhunter

By Erik Rodriguez

This article is a howto on installing and running rkhunter. If you administer any Linux/UNIX boxes that touch the internet, you should read this!



What is a rootkit?

A rootkit is a program that runs on a *nix-based OSes, that allows a remote user to execute certain code or commands. There are many different types of rootkits. Some mount themselves among legit daemons and "hide" themselves often reporting results, output, or data to a remote server. Most rootkits I've seen aren't destructive. They are malicious in nature because they use your server as zombie or bot. If you somehow encounter a really bad rootkit, it could allow a hacker remote access (ssh or telnet) with full root privledges. This is another reason to keep all your packages up2date.

What does rkhunter do?

Rkhunter is much like a virus scanner for a Windows system. It has definitions to help identify rootkits and reports them. Just like anything, rkhunter isn't 100%, but it weeds out the majority of rootkits. Upon running rkhunter, various system files, conf files, and bin directories are examined. The results are cross-referenced against the results of infected systems (from the defintions) and the results are compiled. This is where *nix systems really shine. While your OS may vary, and how it's compiled or configured, the file system and configuration is basically the same. This allows porgrams like rkhunter to provide results with a fairly small window for error or false positive.

Installing rkhunter

Just like all the other packages for *nix, you'll have to download it's tar file from their website. Sometimes I mirror packages on this site, but because this one changes often I'm not going to do that. You can find the latest version from the rkhunter websites (rootkit.nl). Obviously you have root privledges to install this. Here we go:
[root@roswell root]# wget www.orlandotechworks.com/rkhunter/rkhunter-1.2.8.tar.tar
--13:17:10--  http://www.orlandotechworks.com/rkhunter/rkhunter-1.2.8.tar.tar
           => `rkhunter-1.2.8.tar.tar'
Resolving www.orlandotechworks.com... 74.52.121.148
Connecting to www.orlandotechworks.com|74.52.121.148|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 126,314 (123K) [application/x-tar]

100%[================================================================================>] 126,314      259.19K/s

13:17:10 (258.38 KB/s) - `rkhunter-1.2.8.tar.tar' saved [126314/126314]

[root@roswell root]# tar -xzvf rkhunter*.tar
./rkhunter/files/
./rkhunter/files/CHANGELOG
./rkhunter/files/LICENSE
./rkhunter/files/README
./rkhunter/files/WISHLIST
./rkhunter/files/backdoorports.dat
./rkhunter/files/check_modules.pl
./rkhunter/files/check_port.pl
./rkhunter/files/defaulthashes.dat
./rkhunter/files/filehashmd5.pl
./rkhunter/files/filehashsha1.pl
./rkhunter/files/mirrors.dat
./rkhunter/files/os.dat
./rkhunter/files/rkhunter
./rkhunter/files/rkhunter.conf
./rkhunter/files/rkhunter.spec
./rkhunter/files/showfiles.pl
./rkhunter/files/md5blacklist.dat
./rkhunter/files/tools/
./rkhunter/files/tools/update_server.sh
./rkhunter/files/tools/update_client.sh
./rkhunter/files/tools/README
./rkhunter/files/check_update.sh
./rkhunter/files/programs_bad.dat
./rkhunter/files/contrib/
./rkhunter/files/contrib/run_rkhunter.sh
./rkhunter/files/contrib/README.txt
./rkhunter/files/testing/
./rkhunter/files/testing/stringscanner.sh
./rkhunter/files/testing/rootkitinfo.txt
./rkhunter/files/testing/rkhunter.conf
./rkhunter/files/development/
./rkhunter/files/development/createfilehashes.pl
./rkhunter/files/development/createhashes.sh
./rkhunter/files/development/rpmhashes.sh
./rkhunter/files/development/rpmprelinkhashes.sh
./rkhunter/files/development/osinformation.sh
./rkhunter/files/development/rkhunter.8
./rkhunter/files/development/createhashesall.sh
./rkhunter/files/development/search_dead_sysmlinks.sh
./rkhunter/files/programs_good.dat
./rkhunter/installer.sh
[root@roswell root]# cd rkhunter
[root@roswell rkhunter]# ls
files  installer.sh
[root@roswell rkhunter]# ./installer.sh
Rootkit Hunter installer 1.2.4 (Copyright 2003-2005, Michael Boelen)
---------------
Starting installation/update

Checking  /usr/local... OK
Checking file retrieval tools... /usr/bin/wget
Checking installation directories...
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/etc...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/bin...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/db...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/docs...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/scripts...Created
- Checking /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/tmp...Created
- Checking /usr/local/etc...Exists
- Checking /usr/local/bin...Exists
Checking system settings...
    - Perl... OK
Installing files...
Installing Perl module checker... OK
Installing Database updater... OK
Installing Portscanner... OK
Installing MD5 Digest generator... OK
Installing SHA1 Digest generator... OK
Installing Directory viewer... OK
Installing Database Backdoor ports... OK
Installing Database Update mirrors... OK
Installing Database Operating Systems... OK
Installing Database Program versions... OK
Installing Database Program versions... OK
Installing Database Default file hashes... OK
Installing Database MD5 blacklisted files... OK
Installing Changelog... OK
Installing Readme and FAQ... OK
Installing Wishlist and TODO... OK
Installing RK Hunter configuration file... OK
Installing RK Hunter binary... OK
Configuration updated with installation path (/usr/local/rkhunter)

Installation ready.
See /usr/local/rkhunter/lib/rkhunter/docs for more information. Run 'rkhunter' (/usr/local/bin/rkhunter)

Running rkhunter

Well that's it! As you can see I downloaded the package using wget, unpacked it, and installed it using a shell script. Now that it's installed let's run it! The results below are from a non-production RHEL3 box.
[root@roswell rkhunter]# rkhunter -c
Rootkit Hunter 1.2.8 is running

Determining OS... Unknown
Warning: This operating system is not fully supported!
Warning: Cannot find md5_not_known
All MD5 checks will be skipped!


Checking binaries
* Selftests
     Strings (command)                                        [ OK ]


* System tools
     Skipped!


Check rootkits
* Default files and directories
   Rootkit '55808 Trojan - Variant A'...                      [ OK ]
   ADM Worm...                                                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'AjaKit'...                                        [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'aPa Kit'...                                       [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Apache Worm'...                                   [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Ambient (ark) Rootkit'...                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Balaur Rootkit'...                                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'BeastKit'...                                      [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'beX2'...                                          [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'BOBKit'...                                        [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'CiNIK Worm (Slapper.B variant)'...                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Danny-Boy's Abuse Kit'...                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Devil RootKit'...                                 [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Dica'...                                          [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Dreams Rootkit'...                                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Duarawkz'...                                      [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Flea Linux Rootkit'...                            [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'FreeBSD Rootkit'...                               [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Fuck`it Rootkit'...                               [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'GasKit'...                                        [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Heroin LKM'...                                    [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'HjC Kit'...                                       [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'ignoKit'...                                       [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'ImperalsS-FBRK'...                                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Irix Rootkit'...                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Kitko'...                                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Knark'...                                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Li0n Worm'...                                     [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Lockit / LJK2'...                                 [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'MRK'...                                           [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Ni0 Rootkit'...                                   [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'RootKit for SunOS / NSDAP'...                     [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Optic Kit (Tux)'...                               [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Oz Rootkit'...                                    [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Portacelo'...                                     [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'R3dstorm Toolkit'...                              [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'RH-Sharpe's rootkit'...                           [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'RSHA's rootkit'...                                [ OK ]
   Sebek LKM                                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Scalper Worm'...                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Shutdown'...                                      [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'SHV4'...                                          [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'SHV5'...                                          [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Sin Rootkit'...                                   [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Slapper'...                                       [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Sneakin Rootkit'...                               [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Suckit Rootkit'...                                [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'SunOS Rootkit'...                                 [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Superkit'...                                      [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'TBD (Telnet BackDoor)'...                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'TeLeKiT'...                                       [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'T0rn Rootkit'...                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Trojanit Kit'...                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Tuxtendo'...                                      [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'URK'...                                           [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'VcKit'...                                         [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'Volc Rootkit'...                                  [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'X-Org SunOS Rootkit'...                           [ OK ]
   Rootkit 'zaRwT.KiT Rootkit'...                             [ OK ]

* Suspicious files and malware
   Scanning for known rootkit strings                         [ OK ]
   Scanning for known rootkit files                           [ OK ]
   Testing running processes...                               [ OK ]
   Miscellaneous Login backdoors                              [ OK ]
   Miscellaneous directories                                  [ OK ]
   Software related files                                     [ OK ]
   Sniffer logs                                               [ OK ]

* Trojan specific characteristics
   shv4
     Checking /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
       Test 1                                                 [ Clean ]
       Test 2                                                 [ Clean ]
       Test 3                                                 [ Clean ]
     Checking /etc/inetd.conf                                 [ Not found ]
     Checking /etc/xinetd.conf                                [ Clean ]

* Suspicious file properties
   chmod properties
     Checking /bin/ps                                         [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/ls                                         [ Clean ]
     Checking /usr/bin/w                                      [ Clean ]
     Checking /usr/bin/who                                    [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/netstat                                    [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/login                                      [ Clean ]
   Script replacements
     Checking /bin/ps                                         [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/ls                                         [ Clean ]
     Checking /usr/bin/w                                      [ Clean ]
     Checking /usr/bin/who                                    [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/netstat                                    [ Clean ]
     Checking /bin/login                                      [ Clean ]

* OS dependant tests

   Linux
     Checking loaded kernel modules...                        [ OK ]
     Checking files attributes                                [ OK ]
     Checking LKM module path                                 [ OK ]


Networking
* Check: frequently used backdoors
  Port 2001: Scalper Rootkit                                  [ OK ]
  Port 2006: CB Rootkit                                       [ OK ]
  Port 2128: MRK                                              [ OK ]
  Port 14856: Optic Kit (Tux)                                 [ OK ]
  Port 47107: T0rn Rootkit                                    [ OK ]
  Port 60922: zaRwT.KiT                                       [ OK ]

* Interfaces
     Scanning for promiscuous interfaces                      [ OK ]
System checks
* Allround tests
   Checking hostname... Found. Hostname is roswell
   Checking for passwordless user accounts... OK
   Checking for differences in user accounts... OK. No changes.
   Checking for differences in user groups... OK. No changes.
   Checking boot.local/rc.local file...
     - /etc/rc.local                                          [ OK ]
     - /etc/rc.d/rc.local                                     [ OK ]
     - /usr/local/etc/rc.local                                [ Not found ]
     - /usr/local/etc/rc.d/rc.local                           [ Not found ]
     - /etc/conf.d/local.start                                [ Not found ]
     - /etc/init.d/boot.local                                 [ Not found ]
   Checking rc.d files...
     Processing........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ........................................
               ...................................
   Result rc.d files check                                    [ OK ]
   Checking history files
     Bourne Shell                                             [ OK ]

* Filesystem checks
   Checking /dev for suspicious files...                      [ OK ]
   Scanning for hidden files...                               [ OK ]

Application advisories
* Application scan
   Checking Apache2 modules ...                               [ Not found ]
   Checking Apache configuration ...                          [ OK ]

* Application version scan
   - GnuPG 1.2.1                                              [ Old or patched version ]
   - Apache 2.0.46                                            [ Old or patched version ]
   - Bind DNS 9.2.4                                           [ OK ]
   - OpenSSL 0.9.7a                                           [ Old or patched version ]
   - PHP 4.3.2                                                [ Old or patched version ]
   - Procmail MTA 3.22                                        [ OK ]
   - OpenSSH 3.6.1p2                                          [ Old or patched version ]



Security advisories
* Check: Groups and Accounts
   Searching for /etc/passwd...                               [ Found ]
   Checking users with UID '0' (root)...                      [ OK ]

* Check: SSH
   Searching for sshd_config...
   Found /etc/ssh/sshd_config
   Checking for allowed root login... Watch out Root login possible. Possible risk!
    info:
    Hint: See logfile for more information about this issue
   Checking for allowed protocols...                          [ OK (Only SSH2 allowed) ]

* Check: Events and Logging
   Search for syslog configuration...                         [ OK ]
   Checking for running syslog slave...                       [ OK ]
   Checking for logging to remote system...                   [ OK (no remote logging) ]

   
   

Results and Conclusion

Upon running the program, the results are compiled and displayed. They will be somewhat arbitrary because of different OSes, configurations and kernel builds. However, the action of detecting root kits and backdoors still works. As I mentioned above, this is a MUST if you adminster and *nix boxes that touch the internet. Rootkits are often the worst type of compromise possible. Most of them are designed to infect your OS, and do what it's designed to do, with minimal detection. Don't make the mistake of waiting to harden and audit your OS! You won't enjoy the aftermath because you didn't take the few hours to setup your precautionary methods before green lighting your production machines.

TCP vs. UDP
Extreme Networks: Downloading new software image
Juniper SRX save config to USB drive
Juniper SRX logout sessions
Extreme Networks Syslog Configuration
Command line drive mapping
Neoscale vs. Decru
Data Security vs. Data Protection
Juniper SRX Cluster Configuration
HOWTO - Create VLAN on Extreme Switch
Using a Non-local Colocation Facility
Linux Server Administration
IT Chop Shops
Flow Viewers: SFLOW, NetFLOW, and JFLOW
Exchange 2007 Back Pressure
IPtables open port for specific IP
Politics in IT Departments
HOWTO - Block Dropbox
Cisco IOS Cheat Sheet
Subnet Cheat Sheet
Design a DMZ Network
How DNS works
Firewall Configuration
Juniper SSG Firewalls
Server Management
Configuring VLANs
Runlevels in Linux
Server Clustering
SONET Networks
The Red Hat Network
Server Colocation
Complicated Linux Servers
Dark Fiber
Data Center Network Design
Firewall Types
Colocation Bandwidth




Copyright © 2002-2014 Skullbox.Net All Rights Reserved.
A division of Orlando Tech Works, LLC
By using this site you agree to its Terms and Conditions.
Contact Erik Rodriguez